Sponsored Products are advertisements for products sold by merchants on When you click on a Sponsored Product ad, you will be taken to an Amazon detail page where you can learn more about the product and purchase it. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.3758/BF03201702GORDONRAE 0 1 0 Stanley (1970), Hopkins and Chadbourn (1967) , and Siegel (1956) for correlational methods, parametric post hoc multiple-comparison tests, and nonparametric tests, respectively. A listing of the program and sample runs may be obtained without charge from Gordon Rae, Education Centre, New University of Ulster , Coleraine BT52 ISA, Northern Ireland 1 New University of Ulster , Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland REFERENCES 1.TPM’s Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement ensure the originality and ethicality of all its contents.The journal is indexed in: Scopus, Psych INFO, EBSCO.The contributions containing scales’ validation are accepted only if the paper is aimed at broader theoretical and applicative aims and the validation of the scale is a preliminary step to achieve, in the same paper, these aims. TPM’s articles, reviews, and commentaries emphasize methodologies relevant to both research and professional interventions.Attention is given to the proposition/adaptation of methods applicable in different social contexts, for instance, in organizations.
It can control the endocrine systems acticities through connections with the pituitary glandhypothesis - a statement of a predicted relationship between two or more variables; specifically, in experimental design, the statement of the predicted relationship between the independent and the dependent variableillusory correlation - an error that occurs because people tend to perceive correlations were they expect them to b even if they are not present; illusory correlations help to form and maintain stereotypesinformation-processing approach - theory of problem solving that focuses on the way a persona receives information from the environment, operates on it, integrates it with other information available in memory, and uses it as a basis for deciding how to actin-group favoritism - the positive feelings and special treatment that members of a group will accord other group members while having negative feelings toward and unfairly treating those who are not group membersinsight - the sudden achievement of understanding that arises from a change in perspective on a problem, in Gestalt psychology, insight is viewed as the most appropriate description of human problem solvingintelligence quotient (IQ) - an index of intelligence allowing for comparison of research participants across all chronological ages, IQ is calculated by dividing metal age by chronological age and multiplying by 100interval schedule - a reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement in delivered for the first response made after a given interval of time has passed, in a fixed-interval schedule, the interval is always the same, in a variable-interval schedule, the interval varies around a specified averagelaw of effect - the forerunner of the contemporary principle of reinforcement, this law states that responses leading to satisfying consequences will be strengthened and more likely to be repeated, whereas responses leading to unsatisfying consequences will be weakened and less likely to occurlimbic system - a set of brain structures that includes a relatively primitive portion of the cerebral cortex and parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus, it is believed to be involved in the control of emotional behavior and motivationmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - a neurodiagnostic technique that relies on nuclear magnetic resonance, and MRI scan passes a high-frequency alternating magnetic field through the head and produces information that can be used to form a three-dimensional picture of the brains featuresmajor depression - a disorder characterized by two or more weeks of depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in all or most activities, too much or too little sleep, fatigues, loss of energy, significant weight loss or gain, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, diminished ability to concentrate, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicidemaster status - location in the social structure that is given precedence over other statuses across a variety of situations, foe example, the status of being female sometimes acts as a master status, overriding other status categories, such as occupationmaturation - biological changes that reflect a programmed growth process that is relatively unaffected by environmental conditions (e.g., the maturational sequence of creeping, crawling, and walking found in human beings)meditation - a set of techniques used to attain an altered state of consciousness that allows one to exclude external stimulation, to control ones thoughts, and to focus or concentrate on a single stimulus or idea to a significant degreemental age (MA) - a score devised by Binet to represent the level of intelligence based on an individuals test performance relative to others in his or her age group, it is computed by determining the chronological age at which 50 percent of the age group perform at the same level of the child being tested, children with an MA greater than their chronological age (CA) are ahead of their age group mentally, if their MA is lower than their CA, they lag behind it Minnesota Miltiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) - a test used to aid in the diagnosis of mental disorders, it consists of statements that people are asked to judge as "true," "false," or "cannot say" about themselves, the responses are then compared to those typically given by people diagnosed as having particular psychiatric disordersmorality of care - a theory of moral development conceptualized by Carol Gilligan that emphasizes the values of caring and compassion and suggests that females develop different moral orientations that do malesmultiple regression - a statistical procedure that can be used to correlate more than one variable (predictor variables) with another variable (criterion variable) in order to improved prediction accuracyneed for achievement - the need to meet a standard for excellent, to accomplish something difficult, or to excel, people high in this need persist longer and do better on difficult tasks, and are apt to set realistic and challenging goals, the need for achievement reflects a central value in American culturenegative afterimage - in vision, the visual image that lasts after removal of the stimulus that caused it, this afterimage appears in the opposite color of the original stimulus, e.g., red appears as green and blue appears as yellownormal distribution - a frequency distribution whose graphic representation has a symmetric, bell-shaped form called the normal curve, its characteristics are often referred to when investigators test statistical hypotheses and make inferences about the population from a given samplenorms - in intelligence testing, the scores taken from a large sample of a population against which an individuals test scores are evaluated, in social psychology, a groups standards for the behavior of its membersobjective personality tests - a method of personality assessment that is based on a standardized set of questions of previously determined reliability and validity that have been given to a large number of people and permit comparisons among individualsobject relations theory - a form of psychoanalytic ego psychology, the theory that ego development and subsequent interpersonal relationships are based on the infants attachment to the mother and other figuresobsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) - a disorder characterized by repeated or continuous intrusive thoughts, feeling of anxiety as a result of these thoughts, and the need to repeat certain acts to reduce that anxietyoperational definition - the use of a methodological procedure (operation) to define and abstract concept in a concrete way, for example, the operational definition of the abstract concept of anxiety might be operationally defined by a physiological measure, such as heart rate, or by a verbal report measure, such as a rating of anxiety levelopponent-process theory - in vision, a theory of color vision based on the idea that the perception of a particular color depends on a combination of signals from three opposing pairs of receptors or channels (red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white), in motivation, a theory that claims that every emotional experience leads to the opposite emotional experience that persists after the original emotion has endedoptimal level of arousal - the idea that, in keeping with the principle of homeostasis, we have a particular level of cortical stimulation at which our goal-directed behaviors are most effective, we seek stimulation when arousal is low and we avoid stimulation when arousal is high in order to maintain our optimal level of arousalpanic attacks - anxiety attacks that involve feelings and physical reactions such as heart palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, faintness, and great fear that resemble those f someone in terrible danger when no real danger is presentpanic disorder - an anxiety disorder characterized by sudden anxiety attacks usually lasting for several minutes in which bodily symptoms, e.g., choking, dizziness, trembling, and chest pains, are accompanied by feelings of intense apprehension, terror, and a sense of impending doomparasympathetic nervous system - the part of the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system involved in controlling involuntary behavior, such as digestion, it works in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system and conserves body energy, calming the body and bringing functions back to normal after an emergency has passedperipheral nervous system (PNS) - one of the two major divisions of the nervous system that contains the nerves that provide communication between the central nervous system and other part of the body, including muscles, glands, and sensory receptorsphotoreceptors - cells in the retina that transduce light energy into electrochemical information, cones encode color vision and are responsible for acuity, while rods are sensitive to light and are used primarily for vision in dim lightpolygraph - a complex piece of electronic equipment that measures blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and electrical resistance of the skin, it is used in research to determine what people experience as stressful and sometimes as a lie detector, although its validity for that purpose is debatedpositron emission tomography (PET scans) - an imaging process that records the levels of glucose and glucose metabolism in the brain, the resulting pictures show the level of metabolic activity throughout the various regions of the brain at a given point in timeposttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - an anxiety disorder resulting from intensely traumatic events (e.g., experiencing the threat of death, serious injury, or bodily violation as occurs in rape and torture) in which the individual reexperiences emotional, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of the past trauma, including intense fear, helplessness, horror, physical symptoms, and irritabilitypreembryo - in prenatal development, the formless mass of cells that multiplies during the week after fertilization while making its way down the Fallopian tube to burrow into the wall of the uterus (implantation) where it develops into the embryo Premack principle - the principle developed by David Premack that states that under conditions of free choice, the behavior that is most probably is the behavior that is most preferred and therefore most reinforcingpreoperational stage - in Piagets theory, the second stage of cognitive development occurring roughly between two and seven years of age, characterized by a limited understading of logical principles such as conservation and reversibilityprimary appraisal - the first step in the cognitive appraisal of stressors in which the individual asks "am I OK or in trouble" and "what does this mean to me", these questions lead to three conclusions about a potential stressors significance: it can be irrelevant, benign or positive, or stressfulprimitive reflexes - one of two forms of reflexes that full-term new-borns inherit, primitive reflexes, e.g., the grasping reflex, are controlled by subcortical areas of the brain and gradually disappear over the first year of life, they may be a holdover from early evolutionary history when they were once needed for survivalprojective personality tests - a method of personality assessment in which test-takers response to or interpret ambiguous stimuli, e.g., inkblots, it is based on the psychodynamic approach and assumes that unconscious needs or desires will be revealed in the responsesproximity principle - in perception, the Gestalt principle of organization that says that objects that are closer to each other will be more likely to b perceived as a group; in interpersonal attraction, the principle that the mere fact of being physically near someone in one of the most powerful predictors of whether two people will become friendspsychoanalysis - psychodynamic therapy based on Freudian theory which employs techniques such as dream interpretation, free association, and analysis of resistance and transference, the goal i to provide insight into the patients unconscious impulses, conflicts, and motivespsychodynamic approach - a school of psychology that views behavior as a result f mental events and emphasizes the importance of conflicting unconscious mental processes and early developmental experiences for understanding human behaviorpsychological universals - psychological processes that operate in all individuals, such as learning, perception, and memory (what about object relations, projective identification, and defense mechanisms?Instead of repressing or invalidating how we feel, which can subsequently heighten our current emotions, validation can serve to soothe intense feelings and make them more manageable.Validation can be used on one’s own emotions or in relationships.These are ways to win friends and influence people using psychology without being a jerk or making someone feel bad.Trick: Get someone to do a favor for you—also known as the Benjamin Franklin effect.Compliance is a type of social influence where an individual does what someone else wants them to do, following his or her request or suggestion.